جزوه فنون یادگیری زبان (بخش دوم)
chapter Four: Page 77-90
Writing an Outline
Outlining is a useful skill to learn because it can be used in both reading and your writing.
WHAT AN OUTLINE IS: Basically, an outline is an organized list of related items or ideas. It is method of grouping together things that are similar in some selected way, then presenting them in a simplified manner that clearly illustrates the relationship within each group and among all of the groups.
WHAT AN OUTLINE IS FOR: An outline is useful in both reading and writing. An outline is useful in planning the organization of writing. An outline is also useful in uncovering the organization of writing. The writer puts flesh on the skeleton of his outline. The reader removes the flesh to see the skeleton underneath.
In other words:
From this example, you can see that an outline has two purposes:
(1) In writing, to organize and present your ideas effectively.
(2) In reading, to analyze the organization and relationship of ideas.
HOW AN OUTLINE IS WRITTEN: An outline is usually written in one of two forms, depending on its purpose and its subject: (1) a topic outline, or (2) a sentence outline. Both have certain similarities which should be understood and used.
THE TOPIC OUTLINE: This kind of outline is divided into useful and logical topics. It is usual to begin each topic with a capital letter. Because they are topics rather than sentences, it is not necessary to use a period at the end of each topic. Each topic of the same rank should be expressed in the same grammatical form. Each topic of the same rank should be indented the same distance from the margin, and it also should follow the same system of numbers or letters.
THE SENTENCE OUTLINE: The form of a sentence outline is the same as that of a topic outline. The same system of indenting, numbering, and lettering is used. The only difference is that each idea is expressed and punctuated as a complete sentence. A sentence outline is usually more detailed, and it indicates more clearly the structure and organization. For this purpose, the sentences should be short and to the point.
SUMMARY: First, notice that an outline usually starts with the largest or most important idea and then progresses down to smaller or less important ideas. Second, notice how each heading is indented. Headings of equal rank are indented an equal distance from the margin. Third, if a heading runs from one line to the next, it is indented so that it starts directly below the first word of the preceding line. Fourth, notice that no punctuation is needed at the end of the topics in a topic outline. Finally, notice that periods are used after numbers and letters. For fifth and lower ranks, parentheses are used instead of a period.
OUTLINING BEFORE WRITING: An outline can be used either to organize ideas effectively when you write or to analyze ideas carefully when you read, The former is a preparation for writing, the latter is a procedure for reading.
EXPOSITORY WR1TING: The kind of writing you will be mainly concerned with in your studies is called expository writing. Whatever your field of study may be, you will need to write factual reports, explanations of processes, analyses of purposes, causes or results, evaluations of agreements, and conclusions. is the kind of writing in which you expose facts or ideas by presenting, explaining, or interpreting them in some clearly, effectively organized way.
MAIN IDEAS AND SUPPORTING DETAILS: Good expository writing in English, unlike in some other languages, is usually organized in a series of main ideas and supporting details.
تطبیق دادن ،همساز کردن=Accommodate, 78
تمیز،فرق ،امتیاز،برترى ،ترجیح=Distinction, 79
توضیحى ،تفسیرى ،نمایشى=Expository, 87
واجب ،حتمى ،چاره نا پذیر،ضرورى=Indispensable, 88
با شتاب نوشتن=Jot down, 78
اتفاقى،بى ترتیب، بى نظم= Random, 84
اسکلت ،استخوان بندى ،ساختمان=Skeleton, 77
Unit Five: (91-160)
Improving Your Reading
Reading is probably the most important skill you will need for success in your studies. If you read inaccurately, you will fail to understand some of the information and ideas that you read. If you read slowly, you will have to spend too much time reading your assignments so that your other work may suffer. Like other skills, your ability to read English rapidly and accurately depends upon careful instruction and purposeful practice.
READING SPEED AND COMPREHENSION:
Reading speed is determined in part by how many words your eyes can see at a single glance. The ability to see words on either side of the point at which your eyes focus is called peripheral vision. You can increase your peripheral vision by eye exercises. Being able to read by phrases requires an understanding of what words go together grammatically.
Just as important as increasing your peripheral vision is the importance of moving your eyes from point to point in a uniform rhythm. Slow reading also results from regression, the number of times your eyes have to go hack to a word or phrase that they did not see accurately the first time.
A final cause of slow reading is vocalizing, that is, forming the sounds of each word, even though they may not be spoken aloud.
NOTICE: Slow reading is caused by:
- Low peripheral vision
You may wonder about the relationship between reading speed and reading comprehension. You should aim at a comfortable balance between the two. The good reader adjusts his speed to the material he is reading and the kind of comprehension he desires.
RECOGNIZING PARAGRAPH PETTERNS WHILE READING:
You will be able to increase both your speed and comprehension of reading if you recognize a few of the most common ways in which paragraphs are organized. A paragraph is usually about a single topic. Although a paragraph may include several ideas about this topic, one idea will be more important than the others. This is the main idea. It is sometimes called the central or controlling idea. This main idea is usually stated in the topic sentence.
Five common paragraph patterns will be demonstrated here. Recognizing each kind should help you follow the writer’s presentation more quickly and accurately.
1. PARAGRAPH OF ANALYSIS: this kind of paragraph pattern, a topic is analyzed. The topic is broken down into causes, effects, reasons, methods, purposes, or other categories that support the main idea. This main idea may be presented as a general statement at the beginning of the paragraph.
-Deductive organization moves from the general to the particular: The main idea may be presented as a general statement at the beginning of the paragraph.
- Inductive organization moves from the particular to the general: The main idea may be presented as a general conclusion at the end of the paragraph.
2. PARAGRAPHS OF DESCRIPTION: A second type of paragraph pattern is one in which something is described. This may be a physical description, as of a person or place, or it may he a description of a process, a step-by-step explanation of how something is done.
3. PARAGRAPHS OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. A third type of paragraph pattern is one in which several things are compared or contrasted. Paragraphs of this kind usually state the main idea—the things being demonstrated as similar or different —in the first sentence. Then the idea is developed in subsequent sentences, often with examples.
4. PARAGRAPHS OF ANALOGY. A fourth type of paragraph pattern is one which is organized around an analogy for the purpose of clarifying a particular point. There may be no topic sentence, but the main idea is clearly implied by the use of analogy.
5. PARAGRAPHS OF DEFINITION. In this fifth type of paragraph pattern, the purpose is to define, explain, or clarify the meaning of something. Because of the nature of definition, it may involve analysis, comparison or contrast, description, or perhaps even an analogy.
REFERENCES AND CONNECTINES:
Sentences and paragraphs are not just strung together, one after the other. The ideas they express are connected by means of certain words or phrases that relate the ideas to each other.
REFERENCES: References are words which substitute for other words. They refer back to ideas that have already been expressed. They also refer forward to ideas yet to be stated. Pronouns are the most familiar reference words.
CONNECTIVES: Your reading will be more efficient and meaningful if you are aware of the conjunctions that link ideas into some kind of relationship. These words or phrases connect ideas together to indicate result, contrast, or addition.
Connectives That Signal a Result:
-As a consequence
All these words connect a cause with a result or effect.
Connectives that signal a contrast:
- In spite of the fact that
- Although (or though)
- Even though
Connectives that signal an addition:
- And also
- And … too
- As well as
- Besides being
Connectives that signal a series or time sequence:
One, first then finally
Two, second next at last
Three, third afterward lastly
Note: Cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) and ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) are used to show position in a series or sequence. Words like then and next show a continuation, and finally or lastly show and end.
There are two purposes of skimming:
1-to locate specific word, fact, or idea quickly
2-To get a rapid, general impression of the material
SKIMMING TO LOCATE INFORMATION: In this kind of rapid reading, your eyes move quickly over the words or figures until you find the particular information you are looking for.
SKIMMING TO GET AN OVERALL IMPRESSION: Her instead of looking for a single fact, you are interested only in getting a general impression of the material.
For skimming of this kind, on ignore all details and look instead for the main ideas. These are usually expressed in topic sentences which often occur at the beginning or, less often, at the end of a paragraph.
Most of your reading will be the purposeful, study-type reading of textbooks. Though you may often use a skimming technique, usually you will use a careful, close reading technique in order to understand specific information. Because this kind of reading is so important to you, it will be useful to look closely at what a textbook contains, and at how you can make the most efficient use of its contents.
SURVEYING THE TEXTBOOK: When you first get the book, skim through it to see what is included and how it is organized. Look especially at the following parts:
Title Page: Look at the name of the book, the name of the author, who he is, and where he comes from in the title page.
Preface or Foreword: In the preface (sometimes called the foreword or introduction) the author explains the purpose, organization, method of presentation.
Table of Contents: Skim through the table of contents to get an overall view of the material in the book.
Text: The chapters of most textbooks include a variety of study guides: section headings, in boldface type, summaries, maps, charts, diagrams, and table.
Glossary: This is a kind of dictionary which defines or explains some of the technical terms in the book, and often provides examples and page references.
Bibliography: An alphabetical list of relevant books and articles is frequently included either at the end of each chapter or at the end of the book.
Index: This is usually a thorough, fairly detailed alphabetical listing of all the major persons, places, ideas, facts, or topics that the book contains.
READING THE ASSIGNMENT:
Reading is actually a kind of dialog between the reader and the author. A useful technique for reading a textbook assignment has been called SQ3R. This code—standing for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review—describes the five successive steps that should be followed while reading study-type material.
1. Survey: first survey the pages to get a general idea of the material by skimming quickly
2. Question: After a rapid survey, ask yourself questions based on the material you have surveyed.
3. Read: Next read as rapidly as possible.
4. Recite: At the end of each section, summarize the material by reciting to yourself the important points.
5. Review: Finally, when you have finished the assignment, immediately review the material so that it will form a unified whole.
AIDS TO READING AND INTERPRETATION:
A textbook author and his publisher present their material as clearly and effectively as possible. In almost all textbooks you will find the usual front matter (such as the preface and table of contents) and back matter (such as the bibliography and index). Depending upon the subject, most textbooks include some of the following aids to help you understand and interpret the material: footnotes, photographs, tables, charts, maps diagrams, and graphs:
FOOTNOTES: Whenever an author reprints an exact quotation, or when he summarizes or refers to a fact or opinion that is original with someone else, he must acknowledge his source. In a footnote, the author’s first name is placed first and his family name last. The title of the hook or article is placed next.
TABLES: Tables display various kinds of information In clear, compact columns. Tables are useful for quick reference, but they require careful reading.
LINE GRAOHS: A graph illustrates a relationship between at least two things, one of which is measured on a vertical axis, and the other (or others) on a horizontal axis.
BAR GRAPHS: A bar graph is similar to a line graph except that bars are used instead of dots and lines.
CIRCLE GRAPHS: In this kind of graph, a circle represents the total of some specific information.
تایید کردن ،قدردانى کردن=Acknowledge, 140
درخور،مناسب ،مقتضىAppropriate, 155=
بهم فشردن ،تنگ هم قراردادن ،بهم فشرده=Compact, 142
مشورت کردن ،مراجعه کردن=Confer, 144
مصرف کنندهConsumer, 156=
نمایش،نمایش دادن ،نشان دادن=Display, 142
مهاجر،کوچ کننده=Emigrant, 158
برامد،هزینه ،خرج ،مخارج ،مصرف ،پرداخت=Expenditure, 147
پناهنده ،مهاجر،تازه وارد،غریب=Immigrant, 158
شرح علائم و اختصارات ،افسانه=Legend, 148
هزینه ،پرداخت=Outlay, 154
قابل اطمینان ،موثق ،معتبر،قابل اتکا=Reliable, 143
چند ضرب المثل انگلیسی چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
نمونه هایی از گفتگوهای تجاری (بخش دوم) چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
نمونه هایی از گفتگوهای تجاری (بخش اول) چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
اندرزهای شکسپیر برای لذت از زندگی دوشنبه 27 شهریور 1391
چند اصطلاح در بر دارنده ی نام های حیوانات به صورت تست های چند گزینه ای شنبه 21 مرداد 1391
برخی لغات انگلیسی که ریشه فارسی دارند. چهارشنبه 13 مهر 1390
تقویت مهارت خواندن و درک مفاهیم جمعه 18 شهریور 1390
نمونه سوال: شعر ساده دوشنبه 13 تیر 1390
Beauty شنبه 11 تیر 1390
Paradox of Our Times شنبه 11 تیر 1390
مقاله: معیارهای ترجمه متون دینی شنبه 11 تیر 1390
پیشنهادهایی در ترجمه نوشته های علمی و تحقیقی (بخش دوم) شنبه 11 تیر 1390
پیشنهادهایی در ترجمه نوشته های علمی و تحقیقی (بخش اول) شنبه 11 تیر 1390
مقاله: پست مدرنیسـم و فرآینـد جهـانی شدن شنبه 11 تیر 1390
معرفی کتاب برای listening جمعه 3 تیر 1390
معرفی کتاب برای یادگیری grammar جمعه 3 تیر 1390
ده سوالی که خداوند از شما نمی پرسد... دوشنبه 30 خرداد 1390
چگونه انگلیسی بنویسیم شنبه 28 خرداد 1390
نمونه سوال اصول و روش ترجمه جمعه 20 خرداد 1390
روش تشخیص main idea چهارشنبه 18 خرداد 1390
چگونه مهارت درک مطلب را بهبود بخشیم. چهارشنبه 18 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی ( بخش سیزدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی ( بخش دوازدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش یازدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش دهم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش نهم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش هشتم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش هفتم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش ششم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
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