جزوه فنون یادگیری زبان (بخش اول)

 

نوع مطلب :مطالب مفید درسی و مقالات ،دانشگاه آزاد رودهن ،

جزوه فنون یادگیری زبان (بخش اول)

Yorkey's Study Skills; Summary and Help

 Instructor: F. Farshchian M. A.

Compiled: Dec. 2007

Chapter one: Pages 1-7

 Studying in English

This textbook is intended to teach you how to use English effectively as a language of instruction. There are some important factors which are effective in your studying success:

MOTIVATION: Your success in your studies will also depend upon your motivation. This need or desire to achieve a certain goal can make the difference between success and failure, Motivation can come from two sources: from inside of you or from outside of you.

CONCENTRATION: To concentrate means to focus your attention clearly arid completely on a purpose. This is very easy to do when you are interested in what you are doing; it is difficult to do when you are not especially interested.

DISTRACTIONS: A distraction is something, such as a sudden noise, or someone, such as an unexpected visitor, that takes your attention away from what you are doing. You have no control over some distractions, but you can control others.

YOUR PLACE OF STUDY: In order to study efficiently, you need to have a place that is always, and only, used for studying. Ideally, this should be your own desk in your own private room. Your desk should be neat and cleared of anything that distracts your attention, such as photographs, personal letters, magazines, and especially a radio.

YOUR TIME OF STUDY: One of the wisest hut most difficult rules of studying is to set a f .finite schedule and then follow it.

You should keep some points in your mind:

1. Be realistic.

2. For courses which depend largely on recitation, plan a study period just before class.

3. For courses that depend largely on plan a study period immediately after the class.

4. Many courses use both a lecture and recitation method of instruction. You will have to plan or revise your schedule accordingly. 5. Distribute your study hours rather than mass them all together.

6. Do not expect to learn material during the last few days before an examination by cramming.

7. Plan to spend at least two hours on outside preparation for each hour in class.

8. When unexpected events happen, rearrange your schedule.

 ساختگى ،مصنوعى ،بدلىArtificial, page1=

 واپسین ،غائى ،نهایىUltimate, p. 1=

 انگیزش ،محرک ،انگیزه = Motivation, p. 1

 مرکز توجه ،متمرکز کردن توجه = Focus, p. 2

تنها، تکی، منزوی Isolated, p. 2 =

اختلال ،ناراحتى ،مزاحمتDisturbance, p. 3=

حذف کردن ،محو کردن = Eliminate, p. 3

پذیرا- همان نوازان ه= Hospitable, p. 3

  قطع ،انقطاع ،تعلیقInterruption, p. 3=

 تمیز و مرتب = Neat, p. 3

جمع کردن ، روی هم نهادن=Accumulate, p. 4

مجال ،وقت کافى ،فراغت=Leisure, p. 4

از حفظ خوانى ،بازگو نمودن درس حفظى=Recitation, p. 4

بازبینى ،تجدید نظر کردن ،اصلاح نمودن=Revise p. 4

باشتاب یاد گرفتن, پرکردن=Cram, p. 5

بترتیب وقوع ،ترتیب زمانى وقوع=Chronological, p. 6

ازمایشى ،امتحانى ،عمل تجربى=Tentative, p. 6

Chapter two: Pages 8-44

 Using Your English Dictionary

For foreign students of English, a good dictionary is a necessary reference book. Like all tools, however, it is valuable only if it is used correctly and efficiently.

THE AUTHORITY OF A DICTIONARAY: An English dictionary is merely a record of how English speakers define, pronounce, spell, and use the words of their language. The only authority an English dictionary has is its completeness, its accuracy in reporting the facts, and its recency of publication.

BRITISH AND AMERICAN DICTOINARY: Where a difference exists, a good dictionary will indicate alternate British or American pronunciations, spellings, or meanings.

DESK DICTIONARARIES: several large dictionaries called unabridged, contain all the words of the language. Usually you will not need such a complete dictionary. There are small desk dictionaries that contain more than 100,000 different words.

DICTIONAARIES TO AVOID: Avoid old dictionaries, abridgements of abridgements, and native-language-to-English dictionary.

FINDING WORDS QUICKLY:  Look at the top of any page in your dictionary. Two words are in heavy black type. The word on the left is the same as the first word on the page. The word on the right is the same as the last word on the page. These two words are called guide words. They guide you to the word you are looking for.

WHAT A DICTIONARAY WILL TELL YOU: Spelling, Pronunciation, Syllable Stress, Derivation, Meaning, Part of Speech, Usage, Synonyms and Antonyms, and General information. Some of these items are explained here:

SPELLING: About 85 percent of the words in English have what can be considered a regular spelling. Following are a few spelling rules that are worth learning:

Rule 1: To add a suffix to a one-syllable word with a single vowel followed by a single consonant, double the final consonant.

Rule 2: To add a suffix to a word of more than one syllable, double the final consonant of the last syllable if it ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant and if the stress remains on the last syllable.

Rule 3: Drop the final c before a suffix beginning with a vowel.

But keep the e in order to keep the “soft” sound of c or g before suffixes beginning with a, e, or o.

Rule 4: In syllables with a long a sound (as in me), i comes before except after c.

Rule 5: For words that end with y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i before adding a suffix (except those beginning with i).

Rule 6: For words that end with y preceded by a vowel, keep the y before adding a suffix.

SYLLABLE DIVISION: Your dictionary indicates separate syllables, usually by a heavy black dot in the first entry. There are some important points in this case: *At the end of a line of writing, English words can be divided only at the syllable division. **Never divide words of one syllable. ***Never divide a word so that a single-letter syllable is left alone (a-lone). ****Where a word has double consonant letters, the syllable division comes between the two letters (let-ters).

PRONUNCIATION: A dictionary can help you learn the pronunciation of any word, but only if you are familiar with the symbols used to indicate each of the sounds.

SYLLABLE STRESS: In a word of two syllables, one syllable is pronounced with more force, or loudness, than the other. This difference of emphasis is called stress. Your dictionary will indicate primary, secondary, and weak stresses.

DEFINITIONS OF WORDS: Probably the most important information regarding a word is its meaning. You must understand, however, that most words in English have many meanings or shades of meaning. Words with several different meanings are sometimes illustrated in sentences or phrases.

IDIOMS:  Look up the word look. After the main definition you will see a series of idioms; for example, look after, look for, look out, look up. 

           

HISTORY (ETYMOLOGY) OF WORDS: When you look up the spelling or meaning of any word, take time to study the etymology of the word. It will not only be interesting hut it will also help you to remember the word and its meaning better. It is interesting to know that some English words come from other languages. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language (1961) can help you.

RESTRICTIVE OR USAGE LABELS: The entry for many words in your dictionary will include some kind of label that describes the limitations or special uses of the word: specific dialects, earlier uses or meanings in the history, whether the word has a literary flavor, whether it is formal or informal, or whether it is primarily slang or colloquial.

FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES: Frequently you will hear in a lecture or read in a textbook a word or phrase that is not English but often used in English.

Alternate, p. 8= راه کار فرعى ،تعویض ،یک درمیان امدن

  برابرى ،مساوى ،معادلEquivalent, p. 9=

Assumption, p. 9= گمان, فرض

Derivation, p. 10= اشتقاق ،اقتباس

دورنما،بینایى ،منظره ،چشم اندازPerspective, p. 21=

Context, p. 24= ،مفاد،مفهوم ،متن

Colloquial, p. 29= گفتگویی‌، محاوره‌ای‌

Archaic, p. 29= کهنه( منسوخ)،کهنه ،قدیمى

   منسوخ ،مهجور،غیرمتداولObsolete,  p. 29

Unit Three: Pages 45-76

Learning the Vocabulary of English

WORD FORMATION: Learning the use and meaning of words in English can be made easier, and even enjoyable, if you understand something about one way in which many English words are formed.

The stem of a word is its basic form, the fundamental element which is common to all the other forms of the word. A prefix is a form which is fixed to the beginning of a stem; a suffix is a form which is fixed to the end of a stem.

A prefix usually changes the meaning of a ward, while a suffix usually changes its part of speech.

WORD STEMS: Prefixes and suffixes are added to word stems. Sometimes a word stem can be used by itself, such as the word act or form. Most often a word stem can be used only in combination with a prefix or a suffix. Most word stems in English come from Latin and Greek. If you learn the most common of these, you will be able to analyze the meaning of many words without having to look them up in a dictionary.

GUESSING MEANING FROM CONTEXT: There are three possible ways to learn the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

1- One way is to interrupt your reading immediately and look up the word in a dictionary. This is the safest way. But this would be tiring and time-consuming.

2- Using what you know of word stems and word formation, you Context can make an intelligent guess at the meaning of a new word. Frequently this will be sufficient if you are reading fiction and do not have to understand a precise or technical meaning. Word stems, prefixes, and suffixes are like master keys. A few of them will open the doors to many meanings.

3- Another way of guessing the meaning of a word is by looking carefully at its context. Words have meaning in relation to other words and the situation in which they are used.

RECORDING THE MEANING OF WORDS: If you really want to increase your vocabulary, you will need some system of recording new words and their meanings. You will also have to review the new words regularly. There are three ways:

1. Write the new word on any convenient scrap of paper. This is not recommended. You will either lose the paper or have untidy piles of paper scattered in various places.

2. The best method is to use file cards. This is also the most difficult method because it requires continuous neatness and order. Follow these directions:

b. Write each new word you want to learn on a separate card. (Neatly, in large letters, in the upper left-hand corner of the card)

c. On the same side of the card, copy from your dictionary the word’s pronunciation, including stress marks. Also copy and label other parts of speech of the word.

d. On the opposite side of the card, write the definition (in English). Then write the sentence in which you read or heard the word.

e. Arrange your cards in alphabetical order.

f. Review regularly. Look at the word side of each card. Pronounce the word. Recite its meaning to yourself, in English. Turn the card over to check if you are right. If so, read the sentence. Try to think of another sentence or situation in which the same meaning might he used.

g. If you do nut remember the correct meaning of the word, put a small check mark on the word side of the card.

h. As you add new words to your vocabulary record, regularly review the old ones.

3. Another method is to use a notebook. It helps to rule the page three columns, the widest being at the right:

a. In the left column, print the word neatly. Copy from your dictionary the pronunciation, including stress marks. Also copy and label other parts of speech.

b. In the middle column, write the definition (in English).

c. In the right column, write the sentence in which you read or heard the word.

d. You may wish to arrange words in a roughly alphabetical way, or you may wish to group words according to the subject in which they are commonly used.

e. Review regularly. Cover the definitions and sentences with a piece of paper. Look only at the word at the left, pronounce it. Define it in English. Slide the paper over so that the definition can be seen. If you are right, uncover and read the sentence. Think of other sentences or situations in which the same meaning might be used.

f. If you do not remember the correct meaning of the word, put a small check mark next to the word in the left column. Do this each time you do not know the meaning. This check reminds you that you must make an extra effort to learn this word.

FIXING THE MEANING OF WORDS: Here are some suggestions for fixing a word in your mind:

When you look up a word in your dictionary, then copy it onto a card or into your notebook, notice the spelling carefully. Spell it aloud. Underline unexpected spelling.

As you copy the pronunciation of the word, pronounce it aloud. Be sure you use the correct stress.

Look at other forms of the word that your dictionary lists.

Notice the context in which you have read or heard the word.

Copy the one definition that best fits the meaning of the context.

Make up or copy a defining sentence.

It may help fix the word in your mind to look at the etymology of the word.

Review your vocabulary record regularly. Set aside five minutes of your study time to go through 25 words. More important try to use the new words when you speak and write.

  

علم انسان شناسى= Anthropology, 62

ترتیب وقوع ،ترتیب زمانى وقوع Chronological, p.63=

راهنما،اثر،نشان ،مدرک =Clue, 71

همدردى ،تسلیت ،اظهار تاسف =Condolences, 70

نتیجه منطقى ،اثر،برامد =Consequence, 64

مخالف ،تناقض ،مغایرت =Contradiction, 60

گردامدن ،دورهم جمع شدن ،جمع کردن=Convene, 62

تبعید کردن ،حمل ،اخراجDeport, 63=

فرمان ،حکم ،قانون=Edict, 60

بیرون کشیدن، استخراجExtract, 61=

غیرمعقول ،عجیب ،غریب=Extravagant, 66

تصور،افسانه ،قصه= Fiction, 65

قبلا تهیه دیدن ،پیش بینى کردن ،از پیش دانستن=Foresee, 65

فرمول بندى کردن ،تنظیم کردن=Formulate, 60

شکیبایى ،بردبارى ،ثباتFortitude, 60=

ابتدایى ،پایه اى ،اصولى ،اساسى=Fundamental, 46

مغرور،باددرسر،متکبر،والا=Haughty, 66

اتفاق ،در معرض مخاطره قرار دادن=Hazard, 72

غیر قابل درکImperceptible, 71=

شجاع ،بى باک=Intrepid, 72

حرکت دادن یا حرکت کردن ،حرکت جنگى=Maneuver, 61

رئیسه خانواده ،مادر=Matriarch, 65

واسطه ،میانجى ،دلال=Mediator, 61

حد وسط،متوسطMediocre, 61=

وابسته به پیاده روى ،مبتذل ،بیروح=Pedestrian, 69

مختصر،مفید،جامع ،صریح= Precise, 65

پیش بینى ،پیشگویى=Prediction, 60

سبب ،محرک ،برانگیزنده= Provocative, 62

الغاء کردن ،منقبض کردن ،جمع شدن=Retract, 62

مکفى ،بس ،بسنده ،کافى=Sufficient, 65

تغییر شکل یافتن ،تغییر شکل دادن=Transform, 60

ى نظیر،یکتا،یگانهUnique, 73=

کار،شغل ،کسب ،صداVocation, 61





چند ضرب المثل انگلیسی چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
نمونه هایی از گفتگوهای تجاری (بخش دوم) چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
نمونه هایی از گفتگوهای تجاری (بخش اول) چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
اندرزهای شکسپیر برای لذت از زندگی دوشنبه 27 شهریور 1391
چند اصطلاح در بر دارنده ی نام های حیوانات به صورت تست های چند گزینه ای شنبه 21 مرداد 1391
برخی لغات انگلیسی که ریشه فارسی دارند. چهارشنبه 13 مهر 1390
تقویت مهارت خواندن و درک مفاهیم جمعه 18 شهریور 1390
نمونه سوال: شعر ساده دوشنبه 13 تیر 1390
Beauty شنبه 11 تیر 1390
Paradox of Our Times شنبه 11 تیر 1390
مقاله: معیارهای ترجمه متون دینی شنبه 11 تیر 1390
پیشنهادهایی در ترجمه نوشته های علمی و تحقیقی (بخش دوم) شنبه 11 تیر 1390
پیشنهادهایی در ترجمه نوشته های علمی و تحقیقی (بخش اول) شنبه 11 تیر 1390
مقاله: پست مدرنیسـم و فرآینـد جهـانی شدن شنبه 11 تیر 1390
معرفی کتاب برای listening جمعه 3 تیر 1390
معرفی کتاب برای یادگیری grammar جمعه 3 تیر 1390
ده سوالی که خداوند از شما نمی پرسد... دوشنبه 30 خرداد 1390
چگونه انگلیسی بنویسیم شنبه 28 خرداد 1390
نمونه سوال اصول و روش ترجمه جمعه 20 خرداد 1390
روش تشخیص main idea چهارشنبه 18 خرداد 1390
چگونه مهارت درک مطلب را بهبود بخشیم. چهارشنبه 18 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی ( بخش سیزدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی ( بخش دوازدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش یازدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش دهم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش نهم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش هشتم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش هفتم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش ششم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش پنجم) چهارشنبه 28 اردیبهشت 1390
لیست آخرین پستها