نوع مطلب :مطالب مفید درسی و مقالات ،
جزوه بیان شفاهی داستان
Course Name: Oral Reproduction of Stories
Instructor: F. Farshchian M. A.
Updated in: Feb. 2009
I. Technical Details about the Short Story:
Characters: Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being, moral, emotional, funny, kind, etc. the characters are expressed by what they do (action) and what they say (dialogue)
Some character are called stable because they do not change during the story, and some of the characters are called dynamic due to this reason that they undergo radical change either through a gradual process, or as the result of a crisis.
Setting: The setting of a narrative or dramatic work is the general locale, historical
time, and social circumstances in which its action occurs. The setting of a single episode is the place in which it takes place.
Theme: The theme of a work is not its subject but rather its central idea which may be stated directly or indirectly. For example the theme of Othello is jealousy.
Point of view: It signifies the way the story is told- the mode established by the author by means of which the reader is presented with the characters, dialogues, actions, setting…
I. Third person point of view
1. The omniscient point of view in which the narrator is someone outside of the story who knows every thing about the events, characters (even within their mind)
2. The limited point of view: The narrator tells the story in the third person, but stays inside the confines of what is
experienced, thought. And felt by a single character.
II. First person point of view: In this kind the author limits the narrator to what the first person narrator knows, experiences, infers by talking to other characters.
II. What the Students are Suggested to do:
1. Oral Reproduction of the story:
The plot of the story is what it is about; the underlying meaning is what the story is really about. Tell the class what the story is really about. (For example, the movie Little Miss Sunshine is about a family taking the daughter to compete in a pageant. The movie is really about a dysfunctional family coming together for the common good of the family. The road trip to the pageant forces the family to deal with each other. Steven Spielberg's version of The War of the Worlds depicts aliens invading America, but what is the movie really about? What do those aliens represent?)
In his short stories, Raymond Carver often introduces moral dilemmas or poses moral questions for the audience, but he generally leaves it to the audience to ponder the questions without telling you how to answer them. What type of moral dilemma does your short story confront? (An example of a moral dilemma: Was it "right" for Ollie to assist his mother's suicide in Igby Goes Down?)
If not a moral issue, does Carver confront a social issue in your short story? (For example, in his short story "Cathedral" Carver writes about a man who has difficulty accepting others who are different than him. The man becomes uncomfortable and eventually agitated when he learns that his wife has invited her former employer, a blind man, to come for an overnight visit. Carver clarifies that the husband really is prejudiced against anyone who is not like him by having the him ask about the ethnicity of the blind man's deceased wife.)
Point out symbolic language or images in your story. Explain the symbolism. How does Carver use the symbolism? If the characters interact with the symbol, does every character within the text view the symbol in the same way, or do they interpret it differently? How does this differ from the way the audience will interpret that symbol? (For instance, the American flag represents one concept to Americans, but when an American soldier draped it across Saddam Hussein's statue in Iraq, it became a symbol of American domination for many Iraqis while other Iraqis regarded the flag as a symbol of liberation from oppression. In early America the flag symbolized freedom to most Americans. However, to Africans coming to America aboard slave ships, the flag represented slavery, the opposite of freedom.)
Look for deeper meaning in the text. While your classmates should have read the stories already, you can offer your interpretation of the text.
You may choose to discuss the intertextuality between your short story and the movie. How does the meaning of the short story change from the Carver text to Altman's film? Do not offer a one to one comparison of the two versions. Instead, discuss the difference in meaning, impact, or development of one versus the other.
Class interaction can contribute to your presentation. You may engage the class in your discussion by asking them questions, or allow for questions from classmates at the end of your presentation.
2. Discussing elements:
1. Setting: Describe the setting, as to both time and place. Is the setting integral to the story or independent? Analyze whether a change in setting would significantly alter the story.
2. Characters: List and analyze the major characters. Discuss dominant traits and significant actions. Are they flat or round, static or dynamic? Examine whether character is revealed directly or indirectly. Explore character relationships if appropriate for your story. Identify protagonist and antagonist. Note any foils or doubles.
3. Point of View: Who is the narrator? Is he reliable? What point of view is used? First or third-person? Limited or omniscient? Objective or subjective? Analyze how the writer's choice of viewpoint influences the reader.
4. Plot Structure: List and analyze the elements of plot (narrative hook, exposition, rising action, climax or turning point, falling action, and resolution). Does the story fit Freytag's pyramid, or is it organized differently? Are the conflicts internal or external? Specifically, who vs. whom? Are the conflicts resolved?
5. Theme: List several possible themes offered by your story rather than committing your group to one and one alone. Indicate whether theme is stated or implied. Remember theme must be a statement; no questions allowed!
6. Significant Quotations: Cite sentences and/or passages which seem significant or which illustrate the writer's style. Include the page number and be prepared to discuss what each quotation means, why you chose it, and how it is important to the story. Remember that dialogue and quotation are not the same thing.
7. Special Topics: What special line of inquiry interests your group? You might consider additional technical aspects, such as irony, satire, figurative language, or symbolism. Does this story take a stand about family relationships, sexual attitudes, racial discrimination, economics, politics, or religion? Might the Seven Deadly Sins or the Seven Cardinal Virtues be relevant? Or a discussion of sins of omission vs. sins of commission?
You could discuss plot patterns, such as rite of passage, initiation, fall from innocence, or quest. Or examine motifs, such as death and rebirth or cycles of nature. Perhaps there are contrasts that produce tension within the story: Reason vs. Emotion, Knowledge vs. Ignorance, Realism vs. Romanticism, Civilization vs. Savagery, Age vs. Youth, Male vs. Female? And on and on and on
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