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سایت شخصی خانم فرشچیان وب گاه تخصصی زبان انگلیسی - نقد و بررسی رمان خوشه های خشم اثر جان اشتاین بک (بخش سوم)

نقد و بررسی رمان خوشه های خشم اثر جان اشتاین بک (بخش سوم)

 

نوع مطلب :مطالب مفید درسی و مقالات ،

The Grapes of Wrath Analysis and (part three)

Ma reports that the open gestures of hostility the family has suffered at the hands of policemen and landowners have made her “mean,” petty, hardened. In Weedpatch, however, for the first time since leaving Oklahoma she is treated like a human being. The camp manager’s kindness rekindles her sense of connection in the world. Ma’s speech underlines the importance of fellowship among the migrants, suggesting that, given their current difficulties, one cannot afford to bear one’s burdens alone.

Throughout The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck emphasizes the importance of the self-respect and sense of dignity that Ma displays here. The unfair treatment the migrants receive does not simply create hardship for them; it diminishes them as human beings. As long as people maintain a sense of injustice, however—a sense of anger against those who seek to undercut their pride in themselves—they will never lose their dignity.  Pa, Al, and Uncle John return from a day of fruitless searching for work, but Ma remains hopeful, for Tom has been hired.

Summary: Chapter Twenty-Three

When the people are not working or looking for work, they make music and tell folktales together.

Summary: Chapter Twenty-Four

It is the night of the camp dance—the night that the Farmers’ Association plans to start a riot and have the camp shut down. Ezra Huston, the chairman of the camp committee, hires twenty men to look out for instigators and preempt the riot. As the music begins, Tom and the other men quickly spot three dubious-looking men. When one of the suspected troublemakers picks a fight by stepping in to dance with another man’s date, the men apprehend the trio and evict them from the camp. Before they leave, Huston asks the three why they would turn against their own brothers, and the men confess that they have been well paid to start a riot.

Analysis: Chapters Twenty-Two–Twenty-Four

In the Weedpatch government camp, perhaps for the first time since leaving Oklahoma, the family finds itself in a secure position. Tom finds a job, and the camp manager treats Ma with such dignity. The charity, kindness, and goodwill that the migrants exhibit toward one another testifies to the power of their fellowship. Life in Weedpatch disproves the landowners’ beliefs that “Okies” lead undignified, uncivilized lives. The Joads’ experiences in the Weedpatch camp serve to illustrate one of the novel’s main theses: humans find their greatest strength in numbers. As the novel moves into its final chapters, this philosophy takes center stage. The unity of the migrants poses the greatest threat to landowners and the socioeconomic system on which they thrive.

The Weedpatch camp changes not only individual characters but also the interactions among groups of characters. Thus, we witness a shift of power taking place within the Joad clan. As Pa JoadThe altered family structure parallels the more general revision of traditional power structures in the camp. The farmers now make their own decisions, delegating duties according to notions of fairness and common sense rather than adhering to old hierarchies or submitting to individual cravings for control. As Jim Casy had predicted in Chapter Ten when he insisted on helping Ma salt the family’s meat, when faced with unprecedented hardship, people can no longer afford to stratify themselves according to gender, age, or other superficial differences. suffers one failure after another, Ma is called upon to make decisions and guide the family.

     Summary: Chapter Twenty-Five

Spring is beautiful in California, but, like the migrants, many small local farmers stand to be ruined by large landowners, who monopolize the industry. Unable to compete with these magnates, small farmers watch their crops wither and their debts rise. The wine in the vineyards’ vats goes bad, and anger and resentment spread throughout the land. The narrator comments, “In the souls of the people, the grapes of wrath are filling and growing heavy, growing heavy for the vintage.”

Summary: Chapter Twenty-Six

After nearly a month in the government camp, the Joads find their supplies running low and work scarce. They find work at a peach farm. In the farm, the family learns that they will be paid only five cents a box for picking peaches; desperate for food, they take the job.

Tom sneaks under the gate and starts down the road. He comes upon a tent and discovers that one of the men inside is Jim Casy. Two policemen approach, recognizing Casy as the workers’ leader and referring to him as a communist and crush his skull with a pick handle. Tom kills the police and run away. In the morning the family leave the peach farm and head off to find work picking cotton. Tom hides in a culvert close to the plantation and the family bring food to him.

Summary: Chapter Twenty-Seven

Signs appear everywhere advertising work in the cotton fields. Wages are decent, but workers without cotton-picking sacks are forced to buy them on credit. There are so many workers that some are unable to do enough work even to pay for their sacks. Some of the owners are crooked and rig the scales used to weigh the cotton. To counter this practice, the migrants often load stones in their sacks.

Analysis: Chapters Twetny-Five–Twenty-Seven

In Chapter Twenty-Five, the phrasing and word choice evokes biblical language: simple and declarative, yet highly stylized and symbolic. Steinbeck portrays the rotten state of the economic system by describing the literal decay that results from this system’s agricultural mismanagement. Depictions of the putrefying crops symbolize the people’s darkening, festering anger. The rotting vines and spoiled vintage in particular, both a source and an emblem of the workers’ rage, become a central image and provide the novel with its title.

The Joads’ dream of a golden life in California, like the season’s wine, has gone sour. As the end of Chapter Twenty-Five states, the people’s anger is ripening, “growing heavy for the vintage

      Summary: Chapter Twenty-Eight

At the cotton fields, the Joads are given a boxcar to live in, but they are forced to share it with another family, the Wainwrights. They soon make enough money to buy food and clothing. When another girl, envious of Ruthie’s treat, picks a fight with her, Ruthie boasts angrily that her older brother has killed two men and is now in hiding. Ma Sorrowfully, urges him to leave lest he be caught. Tom shares with his mother some of Jim Casy’s words of wisdom, which he has been pondering since his friend died:

Says one time he went out in the wilderness to find his own soul, an' he foun' he didn't have no soul that was his'n. Says he foun' he jus' got a little piece of a great big soul. Says a wilderness ain't no good, 'cause his little piece of a soul wasn't no good 'less it was with the rest, an' was whole.

Every man’s soul is simply a small piece of a great soul. Tom says that he has decided to unify his soul with this great soul by working to organize the people, as Casy would have wanted. The next day, the two families travel to the small plantation, where so many workers have amassed that the entire crop is picked before noon. Glumly, the family returns to the boxcar, and it begins to rain.

Summary: Chapter Twenty-Nine

Rain lashes the land and rivers overflow, no work can be done during the flood. The men are forced to beg and to steal food. The women watch the men in apprehension, worried that they might finally see them break. Instead, however, they see the men’s fear turning to anger. The women know that their men will remain strong as long as they can maintain their rage.

Summary: Chapter Thirty

On the third day of the storm the rain continues to fall. The truck has flooded, and the family has no choice but to remain in the boxcar. Rose of Sharon delivers a stillborn baby. Uncle John ventures into the storm, places the improvised coffin in the stream, and watches the current carry it away.

On the sixth day of rain, the flood begins to overtake the boxcar, and Ma decides that the family must seek dry ground. On their way, they find a dying man and small boy. The boy tells them that his father has not eaten for six days. The man’s health has deteriorated to such an extent that he cannot digest solid food; he needs soup or milk. Ma looks to Rose of Sharon, and the girl at once understands her unstated thoughts. Rose of Sharon asks everyone to leave the barn and, once alone, she approaches the starving man. Despite his protests, she holds him close and suckles him.

Analysis: Chapters Twenty-Eight–Thirty

Tom continues the way of Jim Casy as he promises to live his life devoted to a soul greater than his own. As Tom leaves his family to fight for social justice, he completes the transformation that began several chapters earlier.

The book ends on a surprisingly hopeful note: Steinbeck uses a collection of symbols, most of them borrowed from biblical stories, to inject a deeply spiritual optimism into his bleak tale. Thus, while the rain represents a damaging force that threatens to wash away the few possessions the Joads have left, it also represents a power of renewal. The reader recalls Steinbeck’s phrasing in Chapter Twenty-Nine, in which the text notes that the downpours, although causing great destruction, also enable the coming of spring: we read that the raindrops are followed by “[t]iny points of grass,” making the hills a pale green.

Even the events surrounding the birth of the dead baby contain images of hope. As Uncle John floats the child downstream, Steinbeck invokes the story of Moses, who, as a baby, was sent down the Nile, and later delivered his people out of slavery and into the Promised Land of Israel. As John surrenders the tiny body to the currents, he tells it: “Go down an’ tell ’em. Go down in the street an’ rot an’ tell ’em that way. That’s the way you can talk.” The child’s corpse becomes a symbolic messenger, charged with the task of testifying to his people’s suffering. (Again, in John’s speech we find an allusion to the life of the Hebrew prophet: his words echo the refrain of the traditional folk gospel song “Go Down, Moses.”)

The closing image of the novel is imbued with equal spiritual power as Rose of Sharon and the starving man in the barn form the figure of a Pietà—a famous motif in visual art in which the Virgin Mary holds the dead Christ in her lap. As Rose of Sharon suckles the dying man, we watch her transform from the complaining, naive, often self-centered girl of previous chapters into a figure of maternal love. As a mother whose child has been sacrificed to send a larger message to the world, she assumes a role similar to that of the mother of Christ. Like Mary, she represents ultimate comfort and protection from suffering, confirming an image of the world in which generosity and self-sacrifice are the greatest of virtues.

 

 

Themes

Transcendentalism

When Casy says that "maybe all men got one big soul ever'body's part of," he argues that humankind as a whole is more important than any other individual. Casy goes so far that perhaps there is no sin, that everything people do is holy. His ideas are close to those of the 19th century American writer Ralf Waldo Emerson, who abandoned traditional religious thought and argued the idea of an "oversoul"- a collective unity of souls transcends or goes beyond the individual soul. Like Emerson, Casy comes to believe that people discover lif's true meaning only when they see their connection to other people and learn to love them. Casy's belief is expressed in the growing sense of unity among the migrants and other dispossessed people.

Agrarianism

The novel affirms Thomos Jefferson's belief that those who labor in the earth are the chosen people pf God. Steinbeck emphasizes the importance of a unified. Sharing attitude between humana and the earth.

     Man’s Inhumanity to Man

Steinbeck consistently and woefully points to the fact that the migrants’ great suffering is caused not by bad weather or mere misfortune but by their fellow human beings. Historical, social, and economic circumstances separate people into rich and poor, landowner and tenant, and the people in the dominant roles struggle viciously to preserve their positions. In order to protect themselves from such danger, the landowners create a system in which the migrants are treated like animals, drawn from one filthy roadside camp to the next, denied livable wages.

The Saving Power of Family and Fellowship

The Grapes of Wrath chronicles the story of two “families”: the Joads and the collective body of migrant workers. Although the Joads are joined by blood, the text argues that it is not their genetics but their loyalty and commitment to one another that establishes their true kinship.

The Dignity of Wrath

The Joads stand as exemplary figures in their refusal to be broken by the circumstances that conspire against them. At every turn, Steinbeck seems intent on showing their dignity and honor; he emphasizes the importance of maintaining self-respect in order to survive spiritually.

Steinbeck makes a clear connection in his novel between dignity and rage. As long as people maintain a sense of injustice—a sense of anger against those who seek to undercut their pride in themselves—they will never lose their dignity.

The Multiplying Effects of Selfishness and Altruism

According to Steinbeck, many of the evils that plague the Joad family and the migrants stem from selfishness. Simple self-interest motivates the landowners and businessmen to sustain a system that sinks thousands of families into poverty. In contrast to and in conflict with this policy of selfishness stands the migrants’ behavior toward one another. Aware that their livelihood and survival depend upon their devotion to the collective good, the migrants unite—sharing their dreams as well as their burdens—in order to survive.

Improvised Leadership Structures

When the novel begins, the Joad family relies on a traditional family structure in which the men make the decisions and the women obediently do as they are told. As the Joads journey west and try to make a living in California, however, the family dynamic changes drastically. This revolution parallels a similar upheaval in the larger economic hierarchies in the outside world. Thus, the workers at the Weedpatch camp govern themselves according to their own rules and share tasks in accordance with notions of fairness and equality rather than power-hungry ambition or love of authority.

 

 

Symbols

The Turtle:The farmers plight in surviving is comparable to the turtle's struggle to cross the road.

Rose of Sharon’s Pregnancy:Rose of Sharon’s pregnancy holds the promise of a new beginning. When she delivers a stillborn baby, that promise seems broken although a sigh of hope arises by burying the baby in the river.

The Death of the Joads’ Dog:When the Joads stop for gas not long after they begin their trip west, they are met by a hostile station attendant, who accuses them of being beggars and vagrants. While there, a fancy roadster runs down their dog and leaves it for dead in the middle of the road. The gruesome death constitutes the first of many symbols foreshadowing the tragedies that await the family.





کانال تلگرامی من پنجشنبه 10 تیر 1395
چند ضرب المثل انگلیسی چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
نمونه هایی از گفتگوهای تجاری (بخش دوم) چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
نمونه هایی از گفتگوهای تجاری (بخش اول) چهارشنبه 5 مهر 1391
اندرزهای شکسپیر برای لذت از زندگی دوشنبه 27 شهریور 1391
چند اصطلاح در بر دارنده ی نام های حیوانات به صورت تست های چند گزینه ای شنبه 21 مرداد 1391
برخی لغات انگلیسی که ریشه فارسی دارند. چهارشنبه 13 مهر 1390
تقویت مهارت خواندن و درک مفاهیم جمعه 18 شهریور 1390
نمونه سوال: شعر ساده دوشنبه 13 تیر 1390
Beauty شنبه 11 تیر 1390
Paradox of Our Times شنبه 11 تیر 1390
مقاله: معیارهای ترجمه متون دینی شنبه 11 تیر 1390
پیشنهادهایی در ترجمه نوشته های علمی و تحقیقی (بخش دوم) شنبه 11 تیر 1390
پیشنهادهایی در ترجمه نوشته های علمی و تحقیقی (بخش اول) شنبه 11 تیر 1390
مقاله: پست مدرنیسـم و فرآینـد جهـانی شدن شنبه 11 تیر 1390
معرفی کتاب برای listening جمعه 3 تیر 1390
معرفی کتاب برای یادگیری grammar جمعه 3 تیر 1390
ده سوالی که خداوند از شما نمی پرسد... دوشنبه 30 خرداد 1390
چگونه انگلیسی بنویسیم شنبه 28 خرداد 1390
نمونه سوال اصول و روش ترجمه جمعه 20 خرداد 1390
روش تشخیص main idea چهارشنبه 18 خرداد 1390
چگونه مهارت درک مطلب را بهبود بخشیم. چهارشنبه 18 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی ( بخش سیزدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی ( بخش دوازدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش یازدهم) دوشنبه 9 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش دهم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش نهم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش هشتم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش هفتم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
آموزش ابتدایی زبان انگلیسی (بخش ششم) سه شنبه 3 خرداد 1390
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